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Health Forum    Other - Diseases
Health Discussion Forum

 I don't know if I am bulimic...?
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I really don't want to have anorexia but I am very thin..around 6'1 and 116 lb. I'm 15 years old and I hope that in the future I will be healthier....

 is this a considered a disease?
ill be texting something or typing a comment to someone
on myspace, and when i go to read it i'll completely
have forgotten to put one of the main words into the sentence.

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 I've heard that if the human liver has trauma to it, that in some cases it can regenerate the lost tissue?
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 I think I have Insomnia...?
I'm 14... I don't think that really matters though.
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 Quickest way to get rid of a bad cold? Heeelp!?
I am in bed with a very bad cold which came on late Friday night. I have been taking vitamin C, I had several hot toddy's last nigh and I am taking sudafed tablets to try to ease the congestion (...

 Could this be Multiple Sclerosis?
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Are they true?
How and why?...

 What is wrong with me?
All my life I have had little habits, like everybody does. I chew the insides of my cheeks and my lips, curl my toes, and something else I do is rub the skin between my index and middle fingers with ...

 I don't think my doctor takes me seriously.?
For the past month I have been experiencing recurring feeling of depersonalization, I cry sometimes for no reason(20 yr old guy). Sometimes I feel really anxious and dizzy, depressed,everything seems ...

 Can you tell me whats wrong with me?
Ok, so sometimes when I'm in my room, alone, i start pacing around in circles. I'll start talking to out loud. You may think I'm talking to myself, but Its not exactly like that. I don&...

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Hi, I'm 14. Yesterday, I got my nails done with french tips. Yesterday I was fine, but today I'm not. Every time I touch one by accident, it makes me either want to pull them off, or clench ...

can someone please explain 'dyslexia' in simple terms?

Dyslexia is word blindness. People who suffer from this don't recognise words in the same way as people without the condition.

reading disability

its a disorder like any other..child has learning, and writing difficulties

it means someone who have a difficulty in speak the word exactly, difficult in spelling, and writing. People always judge him as a stupidboy. But...truely it's wrong because it could be he is a clever boy, but just have some delayment in his process of study

kdjfkd tksh planig alsivn kngng

muraly k
please reffer http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content3/dyslexia.html for details

Developmental dyslexia is a condition which causes difficulty with reading and writing. It is a learning disability that is likely present from birth. Its standard definition is a difficulty in reading and writing in spite of normal development of intelligence, cognitive and sensory abilities.

The word "dyslexia" comes from the Greek words δυς- dys- ("difficulty with") and λέξις lexis ("words" or "lexicon"). It is a brain-based condition with biochemical and genetic markers[1][2][3]. People are identified as dyslexic when their reading or writing problems cannot be explained by a lack of intellectual ability, inadequate instruction, or sensory problems such as poor eyesight.

The term dyslexia is also sometimes used to refer to the the loss of reading ability following brain damage. This form of dyslexia is more often referred to as either acquired dyslexia or "Alexia". Dyslexia primarily impacts reading and writing abilities; however, other difficulties have been identified including deficits in processing spoken language[4] as well as non-language difficulties[5].

Dyslexia is not limited to reversing the order of letters in reading or writing. Nor is it a visual perception deficit that involves reading letters or words backwards or upside down, as is often implied in popular culture.

Dyslexia is also called learning disability.A simple task like reading a word "God",involves a chain of events or a circuit..lens in the eye takes the picture ,this is taken to the centre of learning in the brain by nerves,the brain decodes or recognises it and relays the information back to be voiced or written. when there is a minor error in this circuit, the person may read the word ,'god' as 'dog'. In this case the problem was reversal of the letters in word. there are many types of Dyslexic problems.If recognised early ,the child can be helped to cope with the problem.it is not curable.2%-5% of the people are dyslexic.
it is caused due to oxygen deprivationat at birth,poor maternal nutrition-especially lack of folic acid etc.Dyslexia can be so little as to be negligible or it can be pronounced. when it in involves maths,it is called Dyscalculia.

In simple terms, dyslexia is when a person sees the letters in a written word in a different order than they actually are. In the person's brain, the letters get all mixed up from the order they are actually in. It makes it very hard for people with that disability to read and learn.

Dyslexia is an unexpected impairment in reading and spelling despite a normal intellect.

Causes and symptoms-

Persons affected with dyslexia have dysfunction developing an awareness of spoken and written words and segmenting smaller units of sound that are essential in an alphabetic language like English. Patients lose the ability to link and map printed symbols (letters) to sound.

Dyslexia runs in families. Studies demonstrate concordance rates of 68% for monozygotic twins and 37% for dizygote twins (Colorado Twin Study of Reading Disability). However, the genetic transmission is not simple and does not follow classical knowledge of trait heritability. Findings suggest that several genetic factors determine reading ability and the interactions of some or all factors determine the ultimate ability to read.

Evidence from neurobiological research utilizing high resolution imaging techniques, and brain measurement studies indicate differences in left temporo-parieto-occipital brain regions in dyslexic patients when compared to nonimpaired readers. Furthermore, evidence using functional brain imaging techniques in adult and children with dyslexia demonstrates a failure of normal left hemisphere posterior brain systems during reading with increased brain activation in frontal regions. This data indicates that impairment of posterior reading systems results in a disruption of the smoothly functioning and integrated reading system seen in nonimpaired persons. The impairment of posterior reading systems causes dyslexic persons to shift to ancillary neuronal systems to compensate for the deficit. It is the impairment in the posterior reading systems that prevents the development of skilled reading. Postmortem studies (confirmed in live subjects using MRI imaging) indicate a lack of symmetry in language-associated regions in the brain. The abnormal symmetry is associated with the common linguistic deficits that are characteristic of dyslexia.

The specific signs of dyslexia in both adults and school-aged children are similar. Patients exhibit inaccurate and labored decoding, word recognition, and text reading. They also exhibit difficulties in spelling and remain slow readers. Typical early symptoms can include difficulty playing rhyming games and problems with learning numbers and letters. Children often avoid reading independently and are unusually happy at the opportunity for parents to read to them.


All cases and ages are diagnosed clinically by a combination of careful medical history, observation and psychological testing. There is no one test that is sufficient to render a definitive diagnosis. Rather, the diagnosis is made based on the results of all the clinical data attained. Dyslexia can be distinguished from other learning disorders by identifying the phonologic deficit. Family history and collateral data obtained from school and test results are essential. Tests to determine attention, memory, intelligence and math and language skills may be administered to establish the diagnosis.

Treatment team-

The treatment team can consist of a neurologist, a pediatrician, and special education instructors. A clinical psychologist can perform psychological assessments (psychometric testing) to help establish the diagnosis. School and/or college counselors also comprise part of an effective and integrated treatment team.


The management for dyslexic patients is lifelong. Early identification and intervention (remediation) of reading deficits involves specialist education. Intervention programs must systematically and explicitly teach phonics ensuring a clear understanding of how letters are linked to sounds (phonemes) and spelling. Typically individualized teaching is recommended to provide a balanced remedial program providing systematic instruction on phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary fluency and comprehension strategies. A well-integrated treatment program also includes opportunities for writing, reading, and discussing literature. A well-executed treatment program considers each component of the reading process to improve phonemic awareness and the ability to manipulate speech sounds.

Treatment for older persons (high school, college, and graduate school) is accommodation rather than remediation. College students require extra time with examination and reading/writing assignments. Other accommodations include recorded books, tape recorders in the classroom, tutorial services, alternatives to multiple choice questions and computer availability with spelling checkers.

Recovery and rehabilitation-

Rehabilitation for dyslexics is a lifelong process. Early intervention in younger patients consists of a highly structured, integrated, systematic and explicit treatment program. A balanced treatment program should include the meaning and phonetic approaches to reading to ultimately improve language development (since dyslexia is a language-based disorder.) The program should allow for personalized instruction. Older persons require accommodation in college and at work versus remediation.

Clinical trials-

There are two current clinical research trials entitled: Comprehensive Program to Improve Reading and Writing Skills in At-Risk and Dyslexic Children; and Using MRI to Evaluate Instructional Programs for Children with Developmental Dyslexia. Information can be obtained from http://www.ClinicalTrails.com.


Dyslexia is a lifelong disorder, but improvement is possible. Multiple learning disabilities can be expected, since the brain connections for reading, spelling, listening, speaking, and writing are part of the linguistic system. The prognosis can ultimately depend on associated comorbidities (other disorders associated with the primary disorder), early detection and intervention, and an intensive and comprehensive treatment plan.

Special concerns-

Early recognition, intervention, and family members are important. Remediation programs must be delivered by highly-trained specialists, and treatment should be individualized..

impaired ability to learn to read;
disturbance of the ability to learn language

Individuals with dyslexia:

* Appear bright, intelligent, and articulate but are unable to read, write, or spell at an age-appropriate level.
* Have average- to above-average intelligence, yet may have poor academic achievement; may have good oral language abilities but will perform much more poorly on similar written-language tests.
* Might be labelled lazy, dumb, careless, immature, "not trying hard enough," or as having a "behavior problem."
* Because dyslexia primarily affects reading while sparing other intellectual abilities, affected individuals might be categorised as not "behind enough" or "bad enough" to receive additional help in a school setting.
* Might feel dumb and have poor self-esteem, and might be easily frustrated and emotional about school reading or testing.
* Might try to hide their reading weaknesses with ingenious compensatory "strategies".
* Might learn best through hands-on experience, demonstrations, experimentation, observation, and visual aids.
* Can show talents in other areas such as art, drama, music, sports, mechanics, story-telling, sales, business, designing, building, or engineering.
* Have related problems with inattention in a school setting; for instance they might seem to "zone out" or daydream often; get lost easily or lose track of time; and have difficulty sustaining attention.

nitikaa s
Learning disability affecting reading ability. Persons with dyslexia may have difficulty remembering, recognizing, and or reversing written letters, numbers, and words, might read backwards, and have poor handwriting.
A disorder where things are done or read backwards. For example, a "d" and a "b" might be confused
Also known as reading disorder, is marked by reading achievement (eg, reading accuracy, speed and comprehension as measured by standardized tests) that falls substantially below that expected given the individuals chronological age, measured intelligence, and age appropriate education (DSM-IV, Dyslexia).

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