Staphylococci are gram-positive, aerobic organisms. Staphylococcus aureus is the most pathogenic; it typically causes skin infections and sometimes pneumonia, endocarditis, and osteomyelitis. It commonly leads to abscess formation. Some strains elaborate toxins that cause gastroenteritis, scalded skin syndrome, and toxic shock syndrome. Diagnosis is by Gram stain and culture. Treatment is usually with penicillinase-resistant Ξ²-lactams, but because antibiotic resistance is common, vancomycin may be required. Some strains are resistant to all but the newest ribosome-targeted antibiotics (eg, linezolid, quinupristin plus dalfopristin) or daptomycin (a lipopeptide antibiotic).
Please see the web pages for more details on MRSA and Bactrim.